Baños de Agua Santa or just Baños is an Ecuadorian city of the province of Tungurahua. It is a major tourist center of the country, is located about 45 minutes from Ambato. He is the head of the canton Baños and has a population of 12,995 people. The most important economic activity Canton inbound tourism. The WWF gave him a bath nominative "A Gift to the Earth"
Baños, is located on the slopes of the Tungurahua volcano a height of 1820 meters (m), close to the geometric center of the Ecuadorian territory. It enjoys a pleasant climate almost all year round; despite high humidity. The Sangay and Llanganates national parks. They are located on the flanks of the canton.
Baños is also a center of religious pilgrimage since the hot springs are popularly associated with "miraculous" cures by the influence of the Dominicans community that is settled in this area for a long time.
ORIGIN OF BAÑOS DE AGUA SANTA
The oldest Spanish chronicles refer to the populations of this region and people who spoke languages Puruhaes and Panzaleos, the ancient name of the valley was Ipo (in language Puruha). The population of the valley was not stable and there Quichua groups.
The first inhabitants that populate Baños almost certainly belong to such men of Lagoa Santa (Brazil), who infiltrated venturing through the basin of the Pastaza River to the border of the Andes (remains found in the caves of San Pedro in 1919, 44 skulls, stone and clay artifacts that are now in Jijón Jacinto Caamano Museum and the Catholic University of Quito, as well as archaeological remains found in Runtún, Machay, etc)
Baños according to reliable historical data, some had no founder or founding date. Simply was populated with the arrival of small scattered groups of Indians (before the conquest) and Spaniards and mestizos especially traded goods from the East to the Highlands and viceversa.Se spoke to Bath was founded by the Spanish in 1553, but this is not real. The confusion is because in that year was when the Order of the Dominicans is assigned to evangelize the Canelos region and Bobonaza. When the Spanish first arrive on this site, which called it IPO in Puruhá language, they find small groups of Panzaleos and Puruháes, many of them, who had fled the massacres of the Spanish. In addition they found a certain coming of East Indians. This population was not stable
Of the 15, 16th and 17th centuries there are very few original writings historical data, among which we can mention, in this regard, the following: In 1541 Father Vacas Galindo tells the arrival of Gonzalo Diaz de Pineda, Martin Street, Alonso de Orejuela along with a contingent of Spanish soldiers, who were accompanied by huambaloes Indians, who had told them that on the slopes of Tungurahua was a silver mine. These conquerors, ambitious for wealth, are made to allocate these lands for exploitation, along with his other relatives, by the Cabildo of San Francisco de Quito. Luckily, the desire to find gold in the country of El Dorado (expeditions Baeza), made these gentlemen of the alleged mines forget.
The chronicler Ruiz Toro Isaiah tells us that in 1585 Pedro Fernandez de Espinoza property gives the priest Alvaro Guerrero Zalamea, the chieftainship of IPO. This religious comes to take possession of this land and called Stay of Our Lady of Monserratte. This man comes with Alonso Guerrero, which takes possession of what Hacienda de San José de Juivi be called. These two partners likewise indigo factory installed at these locations. It was just supposed to Alvaro Guerrero who began with the cult of the Virgin Mary, and is itself in the years when they built the famous Shrine of Our Lady. Pilar Ponce Leiva (Archive of the Indies), tells a story that dates back to 1604, which states that when they arrive at this point called "Seat of the Baths" since 8 blocks from the tiny village at the foot of waterfall, 2 water sources (cununyacus) were, as inhabitants are 40 Indian carriers and a few Spaniards who bathe in these waters (a hot pool and a cold, which mix them). For the Indians enjoy this water call ishpaypae which means bathing in piss Mama Tungurahua. Almost next to these aspects, he says, it is a small church of adobe thatched (La Ermita de la Virgen).
In 1694 the new owner of these lands is the Spanish General Antonio Palomino Flores (owner of the Hacienda San José de Juivi and San Vicente, of which the Baños of the time it was composed) pact with the clergy of this site and agrees For each year in the sum of 3,000 pesos for the chaplaincy and the maintenance of the priest. This money, of course, taken from the work of their workers. This controversial deal is seen by some as an act of a benefactor and others simply act as a landowner more than one operator. For 1764 the Italian Father Mario Cicala in his description Historical Topography of the Province of Quito, described these people as follows:
"It properly Los Banos, a place of waters to which people come from across the province, pilgrims and important people. There are some 300 souls who live almost entirely in squalid thatched houses. Almost all are mestizos. A Dominican priest . It has a warm, humid climate. They are grown on their land maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, camotillos, bananas and peppers of various species. For near the town passes the Rio Grande de los Banos (Pastaza from 1778.Longitud to the Amazon 643 km) .
Its small church burned producing a great miracle, as the wooden image of the Virgin remained intact. The faithful were proposed to build a new church and are building a church of lime and stone "(which was concluded in 1788). On February 4, 1773 the first eruption of historically described Tungurahua occurs. A catastrophe for Baños and surroundings . Before this eruption, several writers and historians, including Father Juan de Velasco, say the volcano was shaped like a pyramid finished in a very pronounced peak, which suggests that the crater we know today began to form with this eruption. Fiery clouds and lava flows launches colossus. The hill of Calvary is formed in this catastrophe. The lava through one of the channels of Bascun going by what is now the street Martinez and reaches the gates of the Ermita de la Virgen was something rebuilt since the last fire. By these years begins to visit Baños likes of Pedro Vicente Maldonado and First Marquis of Selva Alegre, Montufar and Frazo.
The chronicler Isaiah Toro Ruiz, reports that, in 1585, the encomendero Pedro Fernandez de Espinoza property gives the priest Alvaro Guerrero Zalamea, the chieftainship of Ipo. This religious takes possession of the land in the valley and called Estancia (ranch) of Our Lady of Monserratte. Simultaneously another encomendero Alonso Guerrero takes possession of an area called Hacienda de San José de Juivi. These people have also partnered to establish a factory for the production of indigo. Presumably they were also the initiators of the cult of the Virgin Mary in these places.
In 1694, these lands were entitled to Spanish General Antonio Palomino Flores (owner of the Hacienda San José de Juivi and San Vicente, of which the Baños of that time consisted) pact with the representatives of the clergy and promises to give each year the sum of 3,000 pesos for the chaplaincy and the support of a priest.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, there were many political conflicts and civil wars nationwide, Bath became an oasis of neutrality and shelter for both conservatives and liberals, including Juan Montalvo (Finance Puntzán). Many Colombian immigrants take possession of land and property in the area with the approval of President Garcia Moreno, among other families Romo, Erazo Gonzalez Fierro and Argoti.
Notable estates around the village were: Ulba, Ulbilla, Valencia, Vizcaya, Agoyán, Puntzán, San Vicente, Illuchi, Juivi. Baños population was divided at the beginning of the century between landowners and rural laborers.
Twentieth century and today
In 1887, he arrived as pastor Thomas Halflants Belgian priest, who also assumed the duties of mayor and made possible the development of many works, among which are: the delineation of the city streets, building bridges of San Francisco, El Topo, San Martin and the Boards, the first water catchments in Chigla, rebuilding the old church building of the Basilica of the Virgin (1904-1944) and the acquisition of the bronze fountain in the Plaza de El Higuerón . In 1909 the Belgian priest happens Van Shoote. This influenced the religious character of the population.
From 1916-1920 the second contemporary eruption of Tungurahua, in 1918 a huge explosion that shakes the earth in Riobamba, lahars and washed down to Nahuazo occurs occurs. Rain rubble and ashes that day in that time.
In 1928, President Isidro Ayora, built the old road Ambato - Baños, making it the main access to the Amazon region of Ecuador. The December 16, 1944 was officially founded Baños Canton; the First President of the Cantonal Council was Pedro Tomás Vargas and the first president elected in popular votes was Carlos Gonzalez.
Ambato earthquake of August 5, 1949 seriously affected Baños, reducing to rubble almost all buildings in the city. The population declined dramatically, there were many dead and many of the survivors left the city.
In 1999, the Tungurahua volcano was activated; Baños and population was evacuated completely. Since then, the still active Tungurahua presenting major eruptions in 1999, 2000 and 2006.
Topography and geology
Located on the outer flanks of the eastern Andes, on the slopes of the Tungurahua volcano, at an altitude of 1820 meters. It is located 40 km east of Ambato, in the province of Tungurahua has a great abundance of water, with some rivers in the vicinity, such as Bascun River (west), the Ulba River (east of the city) and principally the Pastaza River which borders the city to the south.
Latitude: 02º 55 'S.
Length: 079º 04 'O.
The Tungurahua volcano and other hills that surround the city covering Baños strong winds. It's a rainy tropical climate zone, the usual temperature is about 15-25 ° C in summer.
Source link: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba%C3%B1os_(Ecuador)